By Elcio Abdalla; et al

ISBN-10: 0387578056

ISBN-13: 9780387578057

ISBN-10: 3540578056

ISBN-13: 9783540578055

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**Extra info for 2D-gravity in non-critical strings : discrete and continuum approaches**

**Sample text**

88) The data δgμν |(∂ M) = 0, which follows from GR with the Gibbons-Hawking term, is a smaller amount of data than that required from GR alone, to produce the same field equations. Most of the time the Gibbons-Hawking term is implicitly assumed to be present when the variational principle is used to compute field equations. 3 Cosmology Over the past century the view of the universe that we find ourselves in has exploded in scale. One hundred years ago, humanity thought that the Milky Way Galaxy was alone in the universe.

Class. Quant. Grav. 13, 1487–1498 (1996) [gr-qc/9501014] 22. A. S. Reall, Dynamic dilatonic domain walls. Nucl. Phys. B562, 133–157 (1999) [hep-th/9903225] 23. A. A. Battye, Cosmological expansion on a dilatonic brane-world. Class. Quant. Grav. 18, 2171–2194 (2001) [hep-th/0008192] 38 1 Introduction to Gravitational Theories and Cosmology 24. J. York, W. James, Role of conformal three geometry in the dynamics of gravitation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1082–1085 (1972) 25. R. Ellis, M. Bruni, Covariant and gauge-invariant approach to cosmological density fluctuations.

3 Cosmology 21 component of the energy-momentum tensor yields the Einstein equations in an FRW background: H2 = 8π G ρ, 3 a¨ 4π G =− ρ + 3P . 93a) The first of these equations is the Friedmann equation and the second is the Raychaudhuri equation. The final equation we must calculate in the FRW background is the conservation equation, ∇μ T μ ν = 0, which yields ρ˙ = −3H (ρ + P). 93b) The cosmological Eqs. 93) are not yet closed: there is no rule for the evolution for the pressure P. 94) which specifies the pressure of a substance in terms of its density.

### 2D-gravity in non-critical strings : discrete and continuum approaches by Elcio Abdalla; et al

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