By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers simple ideas and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up-to-date with study subsidized by way of ASHRAE and others, this quantity comprises 39 chapters overlaying basic engineering info, simple fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on this planet.
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Additional info for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
After the vena contracta, the fluid stream expands rather slowly through turbulent or laminar interaction with the fluid along its sides. Outside the jet, fluid velocity is comparatively small. Turbulence helps spread out the jet, increases losses, and brings the velocity distribution back to a more uniform profile. Finally, downstream, the velocity profile returns to the fully developed flow of Figure 4. The entrance and exit profiles can profoundly affect the vena contracta and pressure drop (Coleman 2004).
Alternatively, Heskested (1970) shows that suction at the corner of a sudden expansion has a strong positive effect on geometric separation. Drag Forces on Bodies or Struts Bodies in moving fluid streams are subjected to appreciable fluid forces or drag. Conventionally, the drag force FD on a body can be expressed in terms of a drag coefficient CD: § V 2· F D = C D UA ¨ ------ ¸ ©2 ¹ (20) where A is the projected (normal to flow) area of the body. The drag coefficient CD is a strong function of the body’s shape and angularity, and the Reynolds number of the relative flow in terms of the body’s characteristic dimension.
8 may yield a different loss, because flow disturbances are controlled by the detailed geometry of the fitting. The elbow of a small threaded pipe fitting differs from a bend in a circular duct. 2 at the optimum curvature. These values indicate losses, but there is considerable variance. 8. Expansion flows, such as from one conduit size to another or at the exit into a room or reservoir, are not included. For such occurrences, the Borda loss prediction (from impulse-momentum considerations) is appropriate: 2 2 V 1 § A ·2 V1 – V2 Loss at expansion = ------------------------- = ------ ¨1 – -----1- ¸ 2g 2g © A 2 ¹ (35) Expansion losses may be significantly reduced by avoiding or delaying separation using a gradual diffuser (see Figure 10).
2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers