Read e-book online A Companion to the History of the Middle East PDF

By Youssef M. Choueiri

ISBN-10: 1405106816

ISBN-13: 9781405106818

Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:

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HAWTING uncle of the Prophet. They moved the centre of power to Iraq, where they began to build a new capital at Baghdad in 762. 10 It was under the œ Abba¯sids that the learning and tradition of Islam, especially the Prophet’s Sunna and the interpretation of the Qurš a¯n, thus far transmitted mainly by word of mouth, came to be written down. It is from around the end of the second/eighth century onwards that the earliest texts of the Muslim tradition that have come down to us, in various fields of learning, date.

The fact that from about A D 800 onwards we see the production of a vast mass of traditional literature that has survived and been transmitted until today can suggest a different perspective, however. It may be taken to indicate that the formative period of Islam was coming to its end, that the religion and culture that had been developing in the Middle East following the Arab conquests a hundred and fifty years before was now showing signs of fruition. It too may be used to support the understanding of the rise of Islam as a gradual growth that reached maturity in the third/ninth century.

Following the occultation of the twelfth Imam, specifically Shı¯œ ite collections of hadiths, commentaries on the Qurš a¯n, works of theology (kala ¯m), books of law (_ fiqh), and other texts specific to the Twelver tradition came to be written and have remained definitive of that tradition until today. 13 For traditional Sunnı¯s and Shı¯œ is the establishment of their respective systems of authority – which constitute for us the essence of the two traditions – was merely the consolidation and expression in writing of institutions and ideas established in the time of the Prophet.

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A Companion to the History of the Middle East by Youssef M. Choueiri

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