By M.C. Ricklefs
Famous because the such a lot authoritative basic account of Indonesia, the world's fourth so much populous state, from the arrival of Islam c.1200 to this present day, this ebook covers the wealthy historical past of the Indonesian archipelago with a spotlight on indigenous affairs. Merle Ricklefs poses the query of ways different yet similar linguistic and ethnic groups got here to shape the unitary Republic of Indonesia, and sheds very important mild at the crises and demanding situations dealing with this gigantic country. For this 3rd version, Ricklefs has further chapters at the Soeharto interval after 1975, on Indonesia due to the fact Soeharto, and on western Indonesia within the seventeenth and 18th centuries. different revisions are chanced on during the publication, and the bibliography has been completely up to date.
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Extra info for A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1200
The term wali which is applied to all these figures is Arabic (meaning ‘saint’), but the title sunan which they all carry is Javanese. The origin of the latter is somewhat unclear, but it may derive from suhun, meaning ‘to do honour to’, here in a passive form meaning ‘honoured’. Several, but not all, of the walis are said to have been of non-Javanese descent, and several are said to have studied in Malacca (notably Sunans Giri, Bonang and Walilanang). Several are also said to have had commercial connections, Giri as the foster child of a female trader, Bayat as the employee of a woman rice merchant, and Kalijaga as a grass salesman.
This obvious Chinese protection helped Malacca to become firmly established. In the mid-fifteenth century, Malacca moved to conquer areas on both sides of the Straits which produced food, tin, gold and pepper, thereby increasing both its wealth and its strategic position. By the 1470s and 1480s the empire controlled the main populated centres throughout the southern Malay Peninsula and the central east coast of Sumatra. At the beginning, Parameswara was a Hindu-Buddhist king, but he naturally compelled and encouraged Muslim traders to use his port.
The reliability of all the Javanese sources was questioned by C. C. Berg, who argued that they were to be seen not as historical but rather as supernatural documents, to be understood within the context of politicoreligious myths which the authors of these records were concerned to support. It was his view that these texts were not intended to record the past, but rather by supernatural means to determine future events. Professor Berg’s ideas have, however, found little support from other scholars.
A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1200 by M.C. Ricklefs