By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A background of the Crusades will stand because the definitive heritage of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the heritage, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.
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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311
For a moment it seemed that the curious project might succeed. Angered by alleged associations between his rival to the Byzantine throne and the Norman refugees at Conrad's court, Manuel sent one of his courtiers, Basil Xeros, to Sicily to negotiate a pact with Roger. According to the historian Cinnamus, Basil accepted Sicilian money to write into the pact provisions detrimental to the interests of the Byzantine emperor conceivably recognition of Roger's claim to Antioch, or some other territory claimed by Byzantium.
From 1143 on, no year went by without a Norman attack on the African coast. In June 1 143 a Sicilian fleet attempted to take the city of Tripoli, which was ruled by the Arab house of the BanuMatruh. The attack failed because the Arab tribes of the neighborhood made common cause with the inhabitants and forced the "Franks" to sail for home. In the main, however, the attacks hit points along the coasts from Bougie to Mahdia, being launched each summer during the years 1143-1146 and probably with some regularity each year thereafter, and do not fit into any strategic pattern.
102; also Anonymi gesta Francorum, IV (ed. Hagenmeyer), p. " In this version, Roger Borsa is not mentioned; see Caspar, Roger 11, p. 14, and E. Pontieri, "I Normanni dell' Italia meridionale e la prima crociata," Archivio storico italiano, CXIV (1956), 1 if. Ibn-al-Athir tells us that count Roger rejected a crusading proposal on the grounds that this would ruin his trade with the Moslems of Africa: Al-kamil fr tta'rikh . . [Perfection in History . . ] (Amari, BAS, 1), pp. 450-452; cf. Amari, Storia dei musulmani, III, 192-193.
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard