By Peter Gatrell
"... a sign contribution to a growing to be literature on a phenomenon that has turn into tragically pervasive within the twentieth century.... This hugely unique account combines exemplary empirical examine with the really apt software of assorted how you can discover the far-reaching ramifications of 'a entire empire walking.'" -- Vucinich Prize citation"An vital contribution not just to fashionable Russian background but in addition to an ongoing repositioning of Russia in broader eu and international historic processes.... elegantly written... hugely innovative." -- Europe-Asia stories Drawing on formerly unused archival fabric in Russia, Latvia, and Armenia and on insights from social and demanding idea, Peter Gatrell considers the origins of displacement and its political implications and gives a detailed research of humanitarian projects and the relationships among refugees and the groups during which they settled.
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Extra info for A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies)
138 Obviously, the heaviest farm equipment had to be left behind, along with the basic immovable element of the peasant household—the stove. But smaller items—work tools, clothing and bedding, utensils, perhaps spinning wheels and small looms—might be salvaged. If we assume, somewhat heroically, that the peasant economy of Starobel’sk uezd in Khar’kov province was typical of the farms abandoned by the peasantry of the western borderlands, then refugees were on average probably deprived of around two-¤fths of their assets.
Whereas the earlier law exempted lands that had been granted to colonists at the time of their initial settlement, the December law subjected these lands as well to expropriation. Families of German descent who had lived for generations in Volynia, Kiev, and Podol’ia, as well as in the Volga region, were unceremoniously shipped to Siberia or central Asia, in a brutal foretaste of the horrors in®icted upon the next generation under the Stalin regime. We shall see later how they fared in their new location.
147 But during 1916 one can detect an elision in contemporary doctrine between forced displacement and voluntary migration. 148 Instead, the emphasis fell instead upon the harsh measures in®icted by the enemy: “On the borders of our Russian homeland is a ruthless scourge; the blood is ®owing in Poland, Galicia, Lithuania, the Caucasus. The enemy does not spare the land it has seized; whatever cannot be taken is destroyed. ”149 The Russian public quickly became accustomed to talk of an “unparalleled, spontaneous, indescribable horror” that af®icted hundreds of thousands of civilians close to Russia’s borders.
A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I (Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies) by Peter Gatrell