By R. Cheung, J. Klein, K. Tsubouchi, M. Murakami, N. Kobayashi
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Extra resources for Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1997
What changed was the rules. Global and national, environmental regulations were legislated, defined, or promulgated. And that caused attitudes to change because almost everyone supports, at least in principle, action to preserve the environment. The common expectation 1 changed from the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 9 Performance changed because the choice 2 of cleaning technology was being made based on reasons other than the five items listed above - which might have been expected to produce the best performance.
The others (#3, #4, and #5) can be implemented by your fabrication staff. 99 The most commonly used are centrifugal force, evaporation under vacuum, and displacement by insoluble material. 16. Seldom will a manager find non-evaporative drying implemented in a commercial cleaning machine. The great majority of successful applications are designed and implemented by users. 5 for specific guidance about how to implement the most common non-evaporative technology- air knives. 1 MarangoniDrying His full name was Carlo Giuseppe Matteo Marangoni (1840-1925).
Stainless steel saucepan, half-full of water, on an electric stove. 9 It is desired to evaporate all the water in 5 minutes. These problems occur when a cleaning agent, such as a CFC, is replaced, as the chemical structure of aqueous and acceptable solvent cleaning agents isn't the same as that of the replaced materials. 3 Drying of Water is Difficult As above, drying generally means evaporation of water. It takes a lot of energy, 9~ and a lot of time, to evaporate a little w a t e r . 91 The rate of drying parts is limited by the rate at which heat can be transferred from hot air to the water, causing it to evaporate: 9 Slow heat transfer from heated air to wet parts is normally the rate-limiting process step.
Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1997 by R. Cheung, J. Klein, K. Tsubouchi, M. Murakami, N. Kobayashi