By Dennis Purcell, Jock R. Anderson
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Extra resources for Agricultural extension and research: achievements and problems in national systems
The review covers all Bank-defined regions. The nature of the Bank's assistance to developing countries has led most projects to focus on the smallholder agricultural systems, although not to the exclusion of larger, commercial agricultural interests, particularly for research. For extension, the analysis included all projects approved and completed in the review period, as well as a representative sample of other agricultural projects with a substantial extension component. For research, all completed projects and most ongoing projects in an advanced stage of implementation were included, except for the Africa region, where a sample of the large number of participating countries was taken to represent the region's diversity.
Inadequate funding for recurrent costs reduced effectiveness. · Insufficient relevant technology was frequently a problem and a major constraint in resource-poor environments. Despite considerable achievements, the extension portfolio as a whole lacks adequate funds to operate services properly · Linkages with research were generally weak, and neither research nor extension was sufficiently conscious of the need to understand the constraints and potentials of the different farming systems as a basis for determining relevant technology and technology development requirements.
Recognizing that technological progress is a necessary ingredient in the development process, the World Bank has invested substantial resources in agricultural supporting services, particularly research and extension projects. Bank-supported projects have helped to substantially institutionalize improved services in developing countries. But the review also points to many areas where better results could have been obtained, and makes recommendations for the design and management of the Bank's future assistance.
Agricultural extension and research: achievements and problems in national systems by Dennis Purcell, Jock R. Anderson