By F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster
In this learn, an summary is gifted of agricultural rules on manure and minerals, when it comes to the Nitrate Directive to therapy over the top floor- and groundwater illness from in depth agricultural practices. Six nations belonging to the eu Union have been studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the uk. The regulations and their criminal incorporation have been relating to agricultural and environmental stipulations in each one state. additionally, a list used to be made up of agricultural mineral poli cies within the usa and Canada. stipulations for cattle farming in North the USA fluctuate significantly from these in Europe, yet their ideas shed a distinct gentle on ecu rules. study has proven that there are nonetheless very significant mineral surpluses in lots of international locations and areas. In either the Netherlands and within the Flemish a part of Belgium, latest difficulties as a result of very excessive degrees of manure creation are structural instead of neighborhood and can't simply be solved by way of delivery of manure to different areas. To a lesser volume. Germany, Denmark and comparatively small elements of France (Brittany) and the uk, nonetheless exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, present difficulties can most likely be solved in the current legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. numerous German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
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Additional resources for Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures
When low-mineral foodstuffs are 36 used, lower nominal values can be used. If the farmer can show that his manure contains less phosphate, he will pay lower levies on the surplus. 3. A third way of limiting the quantity of manure is to impose restrictions on the phosphate production of farms. Phosphate production will be limited to 125 kg/ha each year on new farms. Existing farms cannot expand beyond this limit. Existing holdings with a phosphate production above this limit on 31 December 1986 are prohibited from expanding further, but are entitled to maintain manure production at this level: manure production rights.
According to present data, loss standards of 180 to 200 kg N/ha are required to meet the objective from the Rhine and North Sea Action Programme to reduce the nitrogen level by 50% relative to 1985. 4 million ha; this area represents about 45'% of the total territory of the country. which is around 3 million ha. The agricultural sector consists of about 93 000 holdings and employs more than 100 000 people. Between 1980 and 1990 the number of holdings decreased by about 20% and at the same time.
Livestock density is highest in these areas and varies from 5 LU/ha in Overijssel to 8 LU/ha in Noord Brabant. Eight of the total of 12 Dutch provinces have livestock densities over 2 LU/ha: only Zeeland, Noord-Holland, Flevoland en Groningen have lower densities. 5 LU/ha), but pig and poultry densities do. Most granivore farms are located in the sandy regions in the east, middle and south and here densities can reach 8 LU/ha. , 1995). ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES AND SOURCES In this section, we will make an inventory of the different sources of Nand P that contribute to elevated Nand P levels of surface- and groundwater.
Agriculture and the Environment: Minerals, Manure and Measures by F.B. de Walle, J. Sevenster