By Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods
Darkish Earths are a testomony to vanished civilizations of the Amazon Basin, yet can also solution how huge societies may perhaps maintain in depth agriculture in an atmosphere of infertile soils. This ebook examines their starting place, homes, and administration. Questions stay: have been they deliberately produced or a derivative of habitation. extra new and multidisciplinary views by means of top specialists might pave the way in which for the subsequent revolution in soil administration within the humid tropics.
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Additional resources for Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management
Hartt, C. F. (1874). Contributions to the geology and physical geography of the lower Amazonas. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 1, 201-235. F. (1885). Contribuição para a ethnologia do valle do Amazonas. Arquivos do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), 6, 1-174. Heckenberger, M. J. (1996). War and Peace in the Shadow of Empire: Sociopolitical Change in the Upper Xingu of Southeastern Amazonia, ca. AD 1400 – 2000. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. A. (1989). Preliminary results on soil management techniques of the Kayapó Indians.
4,000 BP on the coast of Peru establishes its cultivation well before this date in Amazônia (Pearsall, 1992). It is important to also note that slash-and-burn agriculture among contemporary Amerindians, as we know it, is probably a result of technological HISTORICAL AND SOCIO-CULTURAL ORIGINS 35 changes introduced during European colonization such as the introduction of metal axes (Denevan, 1992). Colonial and national histories brought about significant demographic and cultural losses for Amerindians in Amazônia, confounding our understanding Of earlier periods.
Examination of maps, satellite images and photographs shows that the lower courses of these rivers are, in fact, drowned estuaries and they currently resemble large lakes that are sometimes multiple kilometers wide. With the melting of glacial ice high in the Andes and an increase in precipitation, the water discharge of the main Amazonian rivers increased significantly. This increased water volume and rise in sea level effectively acted as a dam, blocking the flow of water from tributaries into the main river channels.
Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management by Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Bruno Glaser, William I. Woods