By Thomas A. Britten
In the course of international struggle I, approximately 10,000 local americans both enlisted or have been drafted into the yank Expeditionary strength. 3 comparable questions are tested extensive for the 1st time during this booklet: What have been the battlefield reports of local americans? How did racial and cultural stereotypes approximately Indians impact their tasks? Did their wartime contributions result in adjustments in federal Indian coverage or their ordinary of living?Many American Indians wonderful themselves battling at the Western entrance. And compared to black and Mexican American squaddies, Indians loved close to common admire while in uniform. To have fun their patriotism in the course of and after the warfare, Indians may well even practice a number of conventional ceremonies another way proscribed. either in wrestle and of their help roles at the homefront, together with volunteer contributions via Indian girls, local americans was hoping their efforts might bring about a extra energetic software of democracy. however the Bureau of Indian Affairs persevered to chop overall healthiness and education schemes and to suppress Indian cultures. "This is a major ebook and an important contribution to twentieth-century Indian history."--Professor Donald L. Parman
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27 The personal qualities and character of the men commanding Indian troops proved to be a decisive factor in the success or failure in enlisting Indians as regular soldiers. Page 18 Despite its initial success, the army's highest ranking and most experienced officials remained divided over whether to support the plan. General Oliver Otis Howard supported enlisting Indians as soldiers, provided their number would not come at the expense of white troops. Generals George Crook and Nelson A. Miles did not believe that Indians could be fashioned into well- disciplined "spit and polish" soldiers and preferred that they continue to be enlisted as short-term scouts.
Ironically, in late June 1865 the last Confederate officer to surrender to Union officials was General Stand Watie, a Cherokee who had commanded the Confederate Indian Cavalry Brigade during the last months of the war. 2 On the western frontier, meanwhile, Major General Samuel R. Curtis, commanding the Department of Kansas, conceived the idea of utilizing Pawnee scouts. During the Civil War he hoped to use the Pawnees with regular troops to subdue the Sioux as well as to protect the construction of the Union Pacific railroad from Indian attack.
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American Indians in World War I: at home and at war by Thomas A. Britten